Hannah Chapman. (2006) Cotton on (Creative Commons License)The re-stitching of FGM type III to reclose the vagina after childbirth. 4

In Arabic, “El Adel”: meaning “putting right” or “improving”

In some cultures it is perceived as desirable and necessary to undergo reinfibulation following childbirth and studies have shown that this is with the purpose of enhancing male sexual enjoyment in order to ensure the marriage is maintained. It is seen as an improvement or completion and is considered honourable. 17 There is evidence of these procedures occurring immediately following delivery from a study in the Sudan, with 60% of 100 women found to have had “tightening” operations following childbirth. 35% of the women who had not undergone sutured FGM before delivery underwent such surgery in the postnatal period. 18

The RCOG Clinical Guidelines state that:

“Any repair carried out after birth, whether following spontaneous laceration or deliberate defibulation, should be sufficient to appose raw edges and control bleeding, but must not result in a vaginal opening that makes intercourse difficult or impossible” 15a

See UK law for details