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 9  Momoh, C. (2004) ‘Attitudes to female genital mutilation’. British Journal of Midwifery. 12 (10), pp. 631-635. Intermid [online] Available at: http://www.intermid.co.uk. (accessed 11 December 2011)
 10 Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’. Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
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 10b Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’. pp  48 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10c Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp  37 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10d Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’. pp. 20 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10e Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 49 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10f Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 21 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10g Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 22 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
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 10i Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’. pp. 23 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10j Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 27  Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10k Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 47 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10l Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 35 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10m Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 38 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10n Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 43 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10o Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’. pp. 42 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 10p Norman, K. Hemmings, J. Hussein, E, Ootoo-Oyortey, N. (2009) ‘FGM is always with us. Experiences, Perceptions and Beliefs of Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation in London. Results from a peer study’.  pp. 40 Options Consultancy Services and FORWARD. [online] Available at: http://www.options.co.uk/peer  (accessed 05 December 2011)
 11 Behrent,A. (2011) ‘Listening to African Voices Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among Immigrants in Hamburg: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice’ Plan International Deutschland. [online] Available at: http://frauenrechte.de/online/images/downloads/fgm/plan_listening_to_african_voices_2011 (accessed 09 December 2011)
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 13 Donahoe, M. (2006) ‘Female Genital Cutting: Epidemiology, Consequences, and Female Empowerment as a Means of Cultural Change’ Medscape ob/gyn. 11 (2). [online] Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/546497 (accessed 09 December 2011)
 14 World Health Organisation (WHO), Department of Women’s Health (WMH) & Family and Child Health (FCH) (2001). ‘A Systematic Review of the Health Complications of Female Genital Mutilation including Sequelae in Childbirth.’ Geneva, World Health Organisation. WHO/FCH/WMH/00.2 [online] Available at: http://www.who.int (accessed 02 December 2011)
 15 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2009) ‘Female Genital Mutilation and its Management – RCOG Green-top Guideline 53’ [Online]. Available at: http://www.rcog.org.uk/female-genital-mutilation-and-its-management-green-top-53.  (Accessed 13 December 2011)
 15a Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2009) Female Genital Mutilation and its Management. RCOG Green-top Guideline 53 pp. 9  [Online]. Available at: http://www.rcog.org.uk/female-genital-mutilation-and-its-management-green-top-53. (Accessed 13 December 2011)
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 17 Berggren, V. Abdel Salam, G. Bergstro¨m, S. Johansson, E. Edberg, A. (2004)  ‘An explorative study of Sudanese midwives’ motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth.’ Midwifery. 20, pp. 299–311 Elsevier [online] Available at: www.elsevier.com. (Accessed 13 December 2011)
 18 Berggren, V. Elsiddig, A. Yagoub, A. Mahmoud Satti, A. Abdel Khalifa, M. Abdel Aziz, F. and Bergstrom, S. (2007) ‘Postpartum tightening operations on two delivery wards in Sudan.’ African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. 1 (1), pp. 42-45 Intermid [online] Available at: http://www.intermid.co.uk. (accessed 11 December 2011)
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 22 Dorkenoo, E. Morison, L. Macfarlane, A. (2007) ‘A Statistical Study to Estimate the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in England and Wales Summary Report’ Foundation for Women’s Health, Research and Development (FORWARD) [online] Available at: http://www.forwarduk.org.uk/download/96  (accessed 04 December 2011)
 23 Momoh, C. (2005) Female Genital Mutilation. 1st Ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.
 24 Dare, F. Oboro, V. Fadiora, S. Orji, E. Sule-Odu, A. and Olabode, T (2004) ‘Female genital mutilation: an analysis of 522 cases in South-Western Nigeria.’ Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 24 (3), pp. 281–283 informahealthcare [online] Available at: http://www.informahealthcare.com (accessed 04 December 2011)
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 26 Elmusharaf, S. Elkhidir, L. Hoffmann, S. Almroth, L. (2006) ‘A case–control study on the association between female genital mutilation and sexually transmitted infections in Sudan’ BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 113, pp. 469–474. Blackwell Publishing [online] Available at: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/bjog  (accessed 04 December 2011)
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 28  United Nations Commission for Human Rights (UNCHR) (1989) ‘Convention of the Rights of the Child.’ United Nations General Assembly 44th session. Supp. No. 49 [Online]. Available at: www.unhcr.org.uk/  (Accessed: 9 December 2011)
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 30 Great Britain. Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003): Elizabeth II. Chapter 31. London: The Stationery Office. [online] Available at: www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/20030031.html (Accessed: 9 December 2011)
 31 Momoh, C. Ladhani, S. Lochrie, D, Rymer, J. (2001) ‘Female genital mutilation:analysis of the first 12 months of a south-east London specialist clinic’ British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 108, pp. 186-191 bjog-elsevier [online] Available at: http://www.bjog-elsevier.com.  (accessed 11 December 2011)
 32 The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) (2007). ‘Saving Mothers’ Lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer- 2003-2005. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.’ [Online] Available at: http://cemach.interface-test.com/getattachment/927cf18a-735a-47a0-9200-cdea103781c7/Saving-Mothers–Lives-2003-2005_full.aspx  (Accessed: 12 December 2011)
 33 Almroth, L. Bedri, H. ElMusharaf. S, Satti, A, Idris, T. Hashim, M. Suliman, G. Bergstrom, S. (2005) ‘Urogenital Complications among Girls with Genital Mutilation: A Hospital-Based Study in Khartoum.’ African Journal of Reproductive Health, 9 (2), pp. 118-124 Bioline International. [online] Available at: http://www.bioline.org.br/ (accessed 11 December 2011)
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58 Almroth, L. Elmusharaf, S. El Hadi, N. Obeid, A. El Sheikh, M, Elfadil, SM. Bergström, S. (2005) ‘Primary infertility after genital mutilation in girlhood in Sudan: a case-control study.’ Lancet, 366 (9483), pp.385-91. [online] Available at: http://www.mgf.uab.es/docs/Almroth_2005_1.pdf (Accessed 13 December 2011)